Available between 1945-1947

​This was a political and literary journal first published in December 1945 in Jaffa. From issue 21 (21/5/1947), the journal moved to Jerusalem. The journal ceased to be published at the beginning of December 1947 due to financial difficulties. Alongside the investigative articles, commentaries and opinion pieces were also caricatures. The journal’s founder Khayri Husni Hamad (Nablus, 1913-Cairo, 1972), a graduate of the American University in Beirut (1936), served as editor in chief of the newspaper Al-Difa  from 1943 to 1946. In addition, Hamad held management and journalism positions in various newspapers in the country and in Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt, and in the Associated Press news agency and other institutional roles. Hamad published many political books and in the last year of his life, while living in Cairo, he turned to translating literary works from English and French (Ernest Hemingway, Albert Camus, Oscar Wilde) and writing essays about political thought and sociology (similar to Seymour Martin Lipset’s Political Man). Hamad died of a heart attack in Cairo in February 1972. The journal also published special sections, including political current events, a section for youth, for film and radio, and a section on social issues.