One of the most characteristic features of the pre-State entity was the culture of hiking and touring. The rise of the youth movements, pioneer movements and the Histadrut, all lent further momentum to this pastime. The objective was to further several Zionist ideals, mainly getting to know the land, learning about the bible and the history of the Second Temple period, social cohesion, cultivating health consciousness and reinforcing both physical and mental stamina. Not only members of the youth movements, but many adults, took part in these excursions, with a view to creating a robust social ethos grounded in the new Hebrew culture. Prior to the establishment of the State, the excursions covered all of the historical land of Israel, neighboring countries, mainly Syria, Lebanon, and eastern Trans-Jordan.