Sport was one of the manifestations of Jewish national renewal. The slogan was: "Jewish muscle". From the beginning, Zionism stressed physical prowess and a variety of sports developed in the years preceding the establishment of the State. Beyond the popular sports – teams sports and competitive sports such as athletics and ball games, primarily soccer – were events that are no longer as common in the the 21st century such as boxing and horseracing. The picture before us is one of popular culture, not only professional participation, and it recalls a time when resources were modest, almost all activity was voluntary, cultural, and even partisan, far removed from the control of commercial companies or the media.