Cultural activity was widespread and diverse in the years before and after the establishment of the State of Israel. This flourishing can be attributed in part to the rich cultural mosaic that resulted from the ingathering of the exiles. It was also fostered by political rifts, which led to the establishment of parallel creative enterprises under the auspices of the different political camps. The agricultural sector gave high priority to intellectual life in its recreational culture. Nevertheless, it was the burgeoning urban culture during the British mandate period that laid the foundations for diverse cultural acitivity in the period before the advent of television. Above all, it was Hebrew culture – literature, journalism, theater – that established itself in the Jewish world prior to the Holocaust and took center stage thereafter. Alongside Hebrew cultural activity, there was widespread Western cultural acitvity – concerts, opera and plastic arts. Entertainment channels such as film and light music also began to emerge in Hebrew.