The poster shows a large rubbish bin with the lid only half on. The bin is filled with rubbish, and rats are climbing into it and eating rubbish from inside and from what has fallen out. The caption states that rats spread diseases and calls on the public to keep rats away by covering their bins. The poster was published by the Department of Sanitation of the Municipality of Tel Aviv-Jaffa.
Rats are a known health hazard. They spread disease via their bite and via exposure to their secretions that can contaminate food or water. Rats are carry parasites that can cause diseases in humans such as fleas and ticks. A famous epidemic involving rats was the bubonic plague, known as the Black Death, that was caused the death of millions in the Middle Ages.
This poster is not dated, but from the design it seems to have been printed in the early years of the State or shortly before, a period in which the local and governmental authorities started to take responsibility for public health. Before the British Mandate, health care in Israel was underdeveloped, and the population suffered from developing-world health issues. The Mandatory period and the immigration of Jews to Israel saw a huge improvement in public health with the management of health hazards and the development of public health education.