Rozwaga ("reflection") was founded in the first months of the First World War by Henryk Nusbaum (1849-1937), a prominent doctor and public activist in Warsaw - the son of Hilary Nussbaum (1820-1895), who published about Jewish history in Polish and wrote in Jutrzenka and Izraelita - belonging to the circles promoting full integration in Polish society and adoption of Polish culture. Nusbaum published professional and ideological articles in various publications, contributed to Izraelita(published 1866-1915) and was associated with its editorial board, as well as with those of medical journals.
The first issue of Rozwaga was published in January 1915 in Warsaw, and for four years (1915-1918) was almost regularly publishe every month or two. All issues were edited by Nusbaum, and were defined by the subtitle "a social-literary monthly" (miesięcznik społeczno-literacki). The publication included articles and ideological analysis concerned with Polish national interests, "Poles of Mosaic faith", and their allegiance to the polish state. The critical approach of the editor and the journal towards the perception of a separate Jewish national identity was demonstrated by juxtaposing antisemites and zionists in their definitions of Jewish identity and its place in the Polish state. The journal targeted an educated readership, conversant in Polish, with some involvement in Polish social and cultural life.
During 1919 three issues were irregularly published, titled "social-political journal" (czasopismo społeczno-polityczne), and identified as the organ of the "Circle of Polish Patriots of Mosaic Faith" (Koło Patriotów Polskich Wyznania Mojżeszowego).
After that the publication has been discontinued. Printed in the last issue was an open letter of protest, signed by Nusbaum, identifying himself as the chairman of that "Circle of Patriots", to the Council of Four (heads of Allied powers), at the Paris Peace Conference, which drafted the Treaty of Versailles (June 1919). The letter, which was published on 19 July 1919 in other newspapers published in Warsaw, points to the date of publication of the last, undated, issue. The founder and editor Nusbaum decided to abandon the ideological path of integration while preserving a separate Jewish identity, distancing himself from the views of assimilationist circles, and shortly after the publication of the letter converted, a move that caused a public stir.
The name Rozwaga was chosen, about three years later, for another monthly, published in Warsaw from June 1922, edited by Stefan Lubliner (1890-1942/1943). The first editorial clarified that the name was made available after Nusbaum's journal was discontinued, and that there was no direct link between the previous publication, edited by Nusbaum, and the new one, eventhough both supported similar views, though not identical. The new journal was actually a renewed publication of a previously existing journal, published in Warsaw under a different name: Żagiew ("the Torch"), in the years 1916-1920. The numbering of years and volumes in the renewed publication continued that of the other, differently named, previous publication. The similar titles of Nusbaum's journal and the later publication, the identification of 1922 as the seventh year of publication, and the similar background and views of the authors, caused the two journals to be sometimes incorrectly catalogued and described as the same publication.
Prof . David Engel and Dr. Shuki Ecker
An additional digital version of this publication is available at the Warsaw University Library website, including the 1919 issues: