A Hebrew newspaper that was published intermittently from 1863-1886, with a frequency that varied between monthly, fortnightly, and weekly. It first appeared in 1863 in Jerusalem and was later issued from Paris, Mainz, and London. During most of these years it ran as an independent newspaper, aside from 1878-1881, when it appeared as a supplement to the Jewish-German newspaper Izraelit. Edited by Yechiel Brill, Michal HaCohen, Yoel Moshe Solomon, and Dr. Meyer Marcus Lehman, it published content by members of the Old Yishuv (HaYishuv HaYashan), early members of the Hibbat Zion movement, and some of the foremost Orthodox rabbis. The newspaper’s goal was to bring readers news from the Yishuv in Palestine and from neighboring countries, as well as information concerning Jewish communities throughout the world. The newspaper broadcast the positions of Prussian-Ashkenazi Jews in Jerusalem and the rest of the world, and of members of the extreme and moderate Orthodox movements, on the issues of the day.
At first, the newspaper waged a battle against Chevrat Yishuv Eretz Israel (the Society for the Settlement of Eretz Israel) which seeked to steer Jews toward manual work and agricultural settlement. Ha-Levanon claimed that Jews in Palestine should devote themselves to religious study alone. The newspaper also launched polemics against the religious reforms proposed by maskilic groups; at times to the extent of directing insults and abuse at them. Beginning in 1881, the newspaper underwent a transformation. Its editor expressed support for the Hibbat Zion movement and began to encourage aliyah and Jewish settlement in Palestine. The newspaper had a supplementary issue named Kvod Ha-Levanon which was published from time to time and featured literary pieces or religious works.